Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of action of astaxanthin is quite different than most drugs, and we believe is responsible for its excellent safety profile.
Most drugs target single receptors or enzymes in complex pathways, which can lead to side effects with chronic use. Astaxanthin is distributed systemically, including to the liver and heart, where it localizes in cellular and mitochondrial membranes and reduces the oxidative stress that causes chronic inflammation, without affecting the normal function of inflammatory/metabolic signaling pathways.
Unlike other antioxidants such as beta-carotene, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E, astaxanthin spans and stabilizes cellular and mitochondrial membranes (biological lipid bilayers) to function as an aqueous and lipid phase antioxidant without membrane disruption, as proven by X-ray diffraction studies. As a result, astaxanthin demonstrates positive and quantifiable pleiotropic effects on many inflammatory cytokines and drug targets.
Astaxanthin has no known side effects of clinical significance. We believe astaxanthin’s excellent safety profile will be a key competitive advantage compared to other drugs targeting inflammation and lipids.
Astaxanthin is Generally Recognized as Safe (“GRAS”) as a food substance according to U.S. FDA regulations and has undergone extensive toxicity testing by third parties and us with no clinically meaningful issues even at extremely high doses.